Many Learning Theories have been developed over a long period of time, though a majority of those now in use have arisen in the last century or so.

These theories apply to many different levels of educational learning.

Several theories and theorists stand out among this group, many for quite different reasons. Not all theories or theorists are covered on this page.

For information on Learning & Teaching Styles, related methods and further information, go to this page.

This page covers major theorists and their theories. Information includes biographies, information, further sources and an increasing number of videos.

A - H

Bandura, Albert

Bandura and his Social Cognitive Theory. The theory views people as active agents who both influence and are influenced by their environment. A major component of the theory is observational learning : the process of learning desirable and undesirable behaviours by observing others, then reproducing learned behaviours in order to maximise rewards.


Bloom’s Taxonomy

‘Bloom’s taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains. The cognitive domain list has been the primary focus of most traditional education. The models were named after Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy’.

  • A Teacher’s Guide to Bloom’s Taxonomy
    Innovative Teaching Ideas. ‘The purpose of this article is to develop a clear understanding of what Bloom’s Taxonomy is, and how you can apply it in your own teaching and learning. Towards the end of the article you will find some free Bloom’s resources and teaching resources which will help get you started’.
  • Benjamin Bloom
    The man and his works.
  • Bloomin’ Apps
    ‘This page gathers all of the Bloomin’ Apps in one place. Each image has clickable hotspots and includes suggestions to support each of the levels of Bloom’s revised taxonomy’.
  • How the Best Teachers use Bloom’s Taxonomy in their Digital Classrooms
    ‘The top teachers in the country are using Bloom’s Taxonomy to structure their online classes. Find out how they do this and why it matters’.
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    Centre for Teaching, Vanderbilt University, USA. ‘Background Information; The Original Taxonomy; The Revised Taxonomy; Why Use Bloom’s Taxonomy ?; Further Information’.
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy [Wikipedia]
    ‘History, The Cognitive Domain; The Affective Domain; The Psychomotor Domain; Definition of Knowledge; Criticism of the taxonomy; Implications; Connections across disciplines; Visual Interpretations; References; Further Reading’. Wikipedia.
  • The Best Resources For Helping Teachers Use Bloom’s Taxonomy In The Classroom
    Even though done some time ago, most is still functional and certainly useful. Extensive. Larry Ferlazzo.


Bronfenbrenner, Urie

‘Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory views child development as a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values, laws, and customs’ [Simply Psychology, 9 Nov. 2020]

  • Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Development
    ‘Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian-American developmental psychologist whose bioecological model was integral to the formation of American Headstart pre-kindergarten programs. He was influenced by fellow developmental psychologist Lev Vygotsky. The model suggests the interactions between the individual and their environment, categorised into various systems, shape their development over time’.
  • Bronfenbrenner Child Development Theory Explained [HRF]
    ‘Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the ecological systems theory to describe child development. His approach suggests that everything within a child and everything in that child’s environment affects development and growth. The Bronfenbrenner child development theory suggests that there are four systems which influence the child as they grow and develop’.
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory
    ‘Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory views child development as a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values, laws and customs. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory has implications for educational practice’.
  • Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory [Exploring your mind]
    ‘Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory on how the social environment affects human development has had a far-reaching impact on psychological research. His theory isn’t perfect, but it’s one of the best explanations we have on the subject’.
  • Child Development Theories : Urie Bronfenbrenner
    ‘Bronfenbrenner’s research and his new model of child development played a key part in altering the perspective of developmental psychology by calling attention to the many additional environmental and societal influences which impacted upon child development’.
  • The Ecological Systems Theory by Urie Bronfenbrenner
    ‘Formulated by famous psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, this theory helps us understand why we may behave differently when we compare our behaviour in the presence of our family and our behaviour when we are in school or at work’.
  • What is Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory ? [The Psychology Notes HQ]
    ‘According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory, children typically find themselves enmeshed in various ecosystems, from the most intimate home ecological system to the larger school system and then to the most expansive system which includes society and culture’.


Cognitive Load Theory

‘Dylan Wiliam has described cognitive load theory as the single most important thing for teachers to know. Grounded in a robust evidence base, cognitive load theory provides support for explicit models of instruction’ [Cognitive load theory : Research that teachers really need to understand Poster. Source, ]. Information about Emeritus Professor John Sweller, including a bibliography of works, is found here.

  • Cognitive Load Theory - an overview [ScienceDirect]
    ‘Cognitive load theory uses evolutionary theory to consider human cognitive architecture and uses that architecture to devise novel, instructional procedures’. Provides excerpts from a range of documents. Access to the full document may be available through education libraries.
  • Cognitive Load Theory [CLT]
    ‘This article describes the Cognitive Load Theory, developed by John Sweller in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful memory theory’.
  • Cognitive Load Theory - Helping People Learn Effectively
    ‘In this article, we’ll look at Cognitive Load Theory [CLT]. This takes a scientific approach to the design of learning materials, so you can present information at a pace and level of complexity that people can easily understand. Cognitive Load Theory builds upon the widely accepted model of human information processing shown in’ the first diagram.
  • Cognitive Load Theory [John Sweller]
    InstructionalDesign. Overview, Application, Examples [including short video], Principles and References.
  • Cognitive load theory : Research that teachers really need to understand
    CESE NSW. ‘This paper describes the research on cognitive load theory and what it means for more effective teaching practice. The first part of the paper explains how human brains learn according to cognitive load theory and outlines the evidence base for the theory. The second part of the paper examines the implications of cognitive load theory for teaching practice, and describes some recommendations that are directly transferable to the classroom’. A poster linked with this is noted in the introduction above.
  • John Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory
    Exploring your mind. Overview, John Sweller’s cognitive load theory, Principles of Sweller’s cognitive load theory, Key points of the cognitive load theory, Knowledge and critical thinking, short Bibliography.


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‘An approach to learning that holds that people actively construct or make their own knowledge and that reality is determined by the experiences of the learner’ [Elliott et al., 2000, p.256]. See also sections on theorists such as Jerome Bruner, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.


De Bono, Edward

De Bono ‘originated the term lateral thinking, wrote the book Six Thinking Hats and is a proponent of the teaching of thinking as a subject in schools. is regarded by many as the leading authority in the field of creative thinking, innovation and the direct teaching of thinking as a skill’.

  • Edward de Bono - Summary Biographies
  • Lateral Thinking Techniques
    ‘Lateral thinking is the mental process of generating ideas and solving problems by looking at a situation or problem from a unique perspective. It is the ability to think creatively or “outside the box”’.
  • Six Thinking Hats
    ‘Used with well-defined and explicit Return On Investment success in corporations worldwide, Six Thinking Hats is a simple, effective parallel thinking process that helps people be more productive, focused and mindfully involved. A powerful tool set, which once learned can be applied immediately’.
  • Six Thinking Hats Framework for Entrepreneurial Success [Shepreneurs]
    ‘Why is a decision making framework essential ? Deep Dive into 6 Thinking Hats Framework’. Each “hat” is discussed.
  • Six Thinking Hats - Looking at a Decision in Different Ways
    Six Thinking Hats is a way of investigating an issue from a variety of perspectives, but in a clear, conflict-free way. In this article, we’ll explain the principles behind the Six Thinking Hats technique and examine how it could improve decision making for you and your team’.
  • The Creative Thinking Process
    ‘Many people think creativity starts with an idea, but the reality is most creative ideas do not just pop into your head. If you want to come up with creative ideas, you need to establish the circumstances for it to happen’.
  • The most undervalued skill ? Lateral Thinking
    ‘Edward de Bono, who developed the concept of lateral thinking, lays out 4 specific lateral thinking techniques : awareness, random stimulation, alternatives and alteration’.


Dewey, John

‘Educator John Dewey originated the experimentalism philosophy. A proponent of social change and education reform, he founded The New School for Social Research’

  • Centre for Dewey Studies
    Publications, papers, audio, reading list, more.
  • John Dewey
    ‘Life and works; Functional psychology; Pragmatism, instrumentalism, consequentialism; Logic and method; On education and teacher education; On humanism; Criticism; Academic awards; Publications; References; Further reading; External links’ and more. Wikipedia.
  • John Dewey [1859-1952]
    Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ‘Life and Works; Theory of Knowledge; Metaphysics; Ethical and Social Theory; Aesthetics; Critical Reception and Influence; References and Further Reading [Primary Sources, Secondary Sources]’.
  • John Dewey [LibriVox]
    Access recordings by John Dewey on a range of topics. MP3 format.
  • John Dewey Biography
    ‘John Dewey [October 20, 1859 - June 1, 1952] - an American philosopher and educator’.
  • John Dewey - Instrumentalism
    ‘Introduction & Quick Facts; Being, nature, and experience; Nature and the construction of ends; The precarious Histories; Ends and goods; Instrumentalism; and Democracy as a way of life’. Links to further articles.
  • Pragmatism Archive
    ‘Visit a Bibliography of Dewey’s writings, the Chicago School of Pragmatism, the Centre for Dewey Studies, and a chronology of Dewey’s life and works’.
  • What is the John Dewey Theory ?
    ‘This article provides a practical explanation of the John Dewey theory. After reading, you’ll understand the basics of this powerful change management tool’.


Direct Instruction

Siegfried “Zig” Engelmann, ‘Dr. Wesley Becker, and their colleagues believe, [and have proved,] that correctly applied DI can improve academic performance as well as certain affective behaviours. It is currently in use in thousands of schools across the nation [USA] as well as in Canada, the UK and Australia’.


  • Direct Instruction Training on Vimeo
    ‘GGSA Chairman Noel Pearson welcomes participants to Direct Instruction Training in Darwin’. You now need to be able to log in to access this video.
  • Intro to DI Video Series
    ‘This nine-part introduction is free and covers a range of topics addressing the fundamentals of Direct Instruction. Designed to provide information relevant to individuals new to DI’.
  • Siegfried [Zig] Engelmann on Instruction
    ‘In the following 5 video segments, you will hear Zig’s thoughts on everything from “Drill and Kill” to multi-sensory learning to teachers’ creativity in a DI classroom’.
  • Zig Biography
    ‘This sensitive, 23-minute [video] presentation by Jon Palferman documents the professional history of Zig Engelmann, from the early days at the University of Illinois’.

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Emilia, Reggio

An approach rather than an individual’s theory. Developed in the town of Reggio Emilia in the north of Italy after World War 2. It is based on learning concepts far different to those current at the time.


Erikson, Erik

‘He developed a psychosocial theory to understand how we each develop our individual identities. He believed people develop through 8 stages. At each stage, there is one important problem or issue to solve in order to develop a healthy sense of self’.
[Aussie Childcare Network]


Freire, Paulo

‘A Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy. He is best known for his influential work Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which is generally considered one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement’.


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Froebel, Friedrich

‘Friedrich Froebel changed the way we think about early childhood education. He designed balls, wooden blocks, tiles, sticks and rings to demonstrate that children learn by playing. Known around the world as the Froebel Gifts or Gaben, these objects were an important part of his Kindergarten’.


Gagné, Robert

Gagné is best known for his ‘Conditions of Learning’. He is also known for his work on the science of instruction during WWII. Further development centred around what he, among several theorists, believed to be the basis of good instruction. His influence on the area of instructional design has been significant.

  • Conditions of Learning - Gagné
    ‘This theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagné identifies five major categories of learning. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning’.
  • “Conversation on Instructional Design” by Robert M. Gagné and M. David Merrill
    ‘The conversation highlights the main points of Gagné and Merrill’s respective learning theories and a comparison of the events of instruction and Component Display Theory’.
  • Gagné Learning Theory
    Slideshare presentation [31 slides]. Text presentation in addition. Links to further material on Gagné using this format are found listed on the right.
  • Gagné’s Nine Levels of Learning
    ‘Gagné’s Nine Levels of Learning provide a step-by-step approach that can help managers, trainers and facilitators structure their training so that their students or teams get the most from their learning opportunities’. Information and infographics.
  • Robert M. Gagné
    The website objectives provide a clear direction for this site. Learning Theories section covers the important aspects of his work. References are also listed.


Gardner, Howard

Gardner argues that there is more than one single type of intelligence, initially suggesting eight and later suggesting a possible ninth. Having strength in one area develops specific abilities in these [e.g. musical]. Individuals have an individual profile based on multiple factors. There are critics of the concept though the theory is reasonably well accepted among educators. See additional information on Multiple Intelligences on the Learning & Teaching Styles page.

  • Howard Gardner
    ‘Here you will find information about Howard, his latest research and publications, his collection of blogs and contact information’. Biography, FAQs, books, papers, links and more.
  • Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education
    ‘Contents : Introduction; Howard Gardner – a life; Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences; The appeal of Multiple Intelligences; Are there additional intelligences ?; Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences – some issues and problems; Conclusion; Further reading and references’.
  • Howard Gardner Profile
    Official page at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
  • Multiple Intelligence Oasis
    ‘A Beginner’s Guide; Components of MI; Blog; A Collection of Questions New and Old; Practices - Good Practices/Malpractices; Resources [Books, papers, videos, links]’.
  • Understanding Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory
    ‘Ever wondered why some people seem to thrive in certain tasks and others seem to struggle ? This is the occurrence that Howard Gardner was trying to understand when he came up with the Multiple Intelligence Theory. Let’s dive in and find out what this theory is all about and how it approaches the manner in which we understand new concepts’.


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Gestalt Theory

‘Gestalt theory emphasises that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. That is, the attributes of the whole are not deducible from analysis of the parts in isolation. The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been “placed”, or “put together”. Gestalt theory originated in Austria and Germany as a reaction against the associationist and structural schools’ atomistic orientation [an approach which fragmented experience into distinct and unrelated elements]’.
[Encyclopaedia Brittanica].


  • The Gestalt Principles - Basics for Beginners
    ‘The Gestalt Principles are a series of hypothesis defined by German Psychologists in the 1920s. They state that “the whole is something else than the sum of it’s parts” and break down how relationships between design elements are formed and interpreted by the human mind’. [17:20]
  • What is Gestalt Theory ? [9:47]
  • What is Gestalt Therapy ? [2]
    ‘This video describes Gestalt Therapy. Gestalt Therapy was developed by Fritz Perls. Gestalt Therapy emphasizes awareness of self, the body, and the environment’. [15:22]

Gregorc, Anthony F.

Anthony F. Gregorc is best known for his theory of a Mind Styles Model and its associated Style Delineator. The model tries to match education to particular learning styles.

  • Anthony F. Gregorc, Ph.D.
    Biography, Publications, Audio, FAQs on Style, Professional Development options.
  • Anthony Gregorc
    ‘Career; Mind Styles Model and Gregorc Style Delineator; Major Works; References’. Wikipedia.
  • Gregorc Learning Styles
    Information on brain-hemisphere learning styles.
  • Gregorc Learning Styles [2]
    ‘Anthony F. Gregorc, Ph.D., founded a theory to explain the ways a human brain processes information. Let’s take a look at the four categories he devised to describe most learning styles’. Video, Quiz and Course outline.
  • Gregorc Style Delineator
    ‘In order to identify an individual thinking and learning style, Gregorc created the Gregorc Style Delineator [GSD]. This test instrument is a tool used to identify and measure a person’s thinking and learning processes. It is designed to help individuals understand and recognise the ways which they most efficiently receive and process information’.
  • Gregorc’s Thinking Styles
    The Teacherist. Description, The Thinking Styles Test.


Hattie, John

‘John Hattie became known to a wider public with his two books Visible Learning and Visible Learning for Teachers. Visible Learning is a synthesis of more than 800 meta-studies covering more than 80 million students. According to John Hattie, Visible Learning is the result of 15 years of research about what works best for learning in schools’.

  • Dispelling Educational Myths
    ‘Professor John Hattie has looked at thousands of studies involving millions of students to analyse a number of myths versus reality in regards to teaching and learning outcomes’.
  • Evidence Based Teachers Network
    ‘Open to anyone in the teaching profession interested in using evidence-based methods either in their classroom or as a strategy for improving learning in their school or college’. UK Based. Information, resources, more. Don’t miss the Myths and ineffective methods page.
  • Hattie’ s Index Of Teaching & Learning Strategies : 39 Effect Sizes In Ascending Order
    ‘John Hattie, Professor of Education and Director of the Melbourne Education Research Institute at the University of Melbourne, Australia, says ‘effect sizes’ are the best way of answering the question ‘what has the greatest influence on student learning ?’.
  • Visible Learning
    News, videos [see below], glossary, interview, rankings, weblinks, more.
  • Visible Learningplus
    ‘A professional development program for teachers that explores how evidence can be used to create innovation in the learning environment. Our work is focused on John Hattie’s research and the principles of Visible Learning and visible teaching’.


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I - P

Knowles, Malcolm

‘Malcolm Shepherd Knowles was an American educator well known for the use of the term Andragogy as synonymous to adult education. According to him, andragogy is the art and science of adult learning, thus andragogy refers to any form of adult learning. The term andragogy can be supposedly equivalent to the term pedagogy. Andragogy in Greek means man-leading in comparison to pedagogy, which in Greek means child-leading’.
[Kearsley, 2010]

  • Adult Learning Theory [Andragogy]
    ‘An overview of the Adult Learning Theory and definition of Andragogy’. Includes video, links and brief description.
  • Andragogy - Adult Learning Theory
    ‘The best known theory of adult learning is Knowles’ andragogy. As a teacher, writer, and leader in the field of adult education, Knowles was an innovator, responding to the needs of the field as he perceived them and, as such, he was a key figure in the growth and practice of adult education throughout the Western world’.
  • Andragogy : Adult Learning Theory [Instructional Design]
    ‘What is Andragogy Adult Learning Theory ?, Andragogy : The five assumptions, Andragogy : Adult Learning Theory, Related blog articles, FAQs and References’.
  • Andragogy II
    ‘Historical context; Theory description; Theory specifications; Principles; Media Description; Resources;’ more.
  • Andragogy Theory - Malcolm Knowles
    ‘Background on the concept and the educator; Knowles assumptions about adult learners; Desired outcomes of adult learning; Self-directed learning; Key Factors Found in Successful Adult Learning Programs’.
  • Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy
    ‘A champion of andragogy, self-direction in learning and informal adult education. We review his life and achievements, and assess his contribution’.
  • What is Andragogy ?
    ‘Alexander Kapp and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy developed theories around adult education, which were later popularised by Malcolm Knowles - a theorist in adult education. For Knowles, adult learning was premised on these characteristics’.


Kolb, David

‘The concept of experiential learning explores the cyclical pattern of all learning from Experience through Reflection and Conceptualising to Action and on to further Experience. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle now forms the heart of many training and learning events. David Kolb has extended his original work to explore the different ways in which we all learn’.
[Reviewing Skills Training]


Maslow, Abraham

‘Abraham Maslow is one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century. His biggest contributions to psychology were his contributions to humanistic psychology as well as his development of the hierarchy of needs’.

  • Abraham Maslow
    Biography, Theory, Self-actualisation, Metaneeds and metapathologies, Discussion, Bibliography.
  • Abraham Maslow, His Theory & Contribution to Psychology
    ‘Abraham Maslow’s Life; Maslow’s Contributions to Humanistic Psychology; Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs; Abraham Maslow and Positive Psychology; A Take-Home Message; References’.
  • A Theory of Human Motivation -A. H. Maslow [1943]
    A text copy of the original paper from 1943. Considered a Classic in the History of Psychology.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    ‘Deficiency needs vs. growth needs; Five-stage model hierarchy; Eight-stage model hierarchy; Self-actualisation; Educational applications; Critical evaluations; References’. Also has short videos and infographics.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in Education
    Education Library. ‘Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to Education’.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs [Verywell Mind]
    ‘Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is one of the best-known theories of motivation. Maslow’s theory states that our actions are motivated by certain physiological and psychological needs that progress from basic to complex’. A good breakdown of the content.


  • A Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham Maslow
    Full Unabridged Audiobook, [1:02:45].
  • Abraham Maslow and the Psychology of Self-actualisation
    ‘In this video, we explore what it means to self-actualise and examine why most people struggle at this all-important task’. [6:07]
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology. It argues that there are five stages of human needs that motivate our behaviour’. [2:47]
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Explained
    ‘In this video, we explain Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Topics covered include : Background to the model; The basic 5 Stage Hierarchy of Needs; Advantages and disadvantages; Maslow’s 7 Stage Hierarchy of Needs; and Maslow’s 8 Stage Hierarchy of Needs ’. [12:13].
  • Why Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Matters
    ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy [or Pyramid] of Needs is one of the central ideas in modern economics and sociology. The work of a once little-known American psychologist, it has grown into an indispensable guide to understanding the modern world’. [6:28]

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Mezirow, Jack

‘Jack Mezirow is credited with developing the Transformative Learning theory. He indicated Transformative Learning is the process of using a prior interpretation to a construe a new or revised interpretation of the meaning of one’s experience in order to guide future action’. A core component was a ten phase transformation process. It was often linked to adult education.
[Mezirow, 1996:162]

  • Mezirow’s Ten Phases of Transformative Learning
    ‘Mezirow states that there are four ways to learn : Refining or elaborating our meaning schemes [existing frames of reference]; Learning new meaning schemes [new frames of reference]; Transforming meaning schemes [habits of mind]; and Transforming meaning perspectives [points of view]’. Further sections about Transformative Learning.
  • Transformative Learning
    Jack Mezirow; Other Perspectives; learning in practice including various roles [listed]; Citations; References. Wikipedia.
  • Transformative Learning [Valamis]
    ‘After reading this content, you will get a clear understanding of transformative learning and how this theory was developed. This content also gives you an idea of how to apply transformative learning in the workplace to create a transformation in your employee’.
  • Transformative Learning [Jack Mezirow]
    ‘The theory has two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships. Communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desire’.
  • Transformative Learning Theory, An Overview
    PDF download from the site, or read it online. You need to subscribe to access a Plus package [article, summary paper, related articles] but this version is free.
  • What Is The Transformative Learning Theory ?
    ‘Transformative learning process definition, examples, and how it can be applied in the classroom’.


Montessori, Maria

‘Montessori is an approach to education based upon the principle that schooling should work with the nature of the child, instead of against it. Therefore, education should be based upon scientific study of the child and a resulting understanding of the processes of development and learning’.
[Montessori Institute]

  • American Montessori Consulting
    ‘Your one stop for complete Montessori information. Information, Montessori books, resources, links, discussion list, more’.
  • Maria Montessori
    Background; Career; The Montessori Method; References.
  • Montessori Education
    ‘History; Methods; Education practices; Montessori’s philosophy; Studies; Trademark and Branding; References; Further reading; Links. Wikipedia.
  • The Montessori Method
    ‘Since 1982 Michael Olaf Montessori has helped parents and teachers understand and support the full potential of children’.
  • What is Montessori ? [Montessori Institute]
    ‘A Montessori program is different from other educational programs in a number of ways’. Multiple sections respond to posed questions that cover the method and its structure. Links to the last video listed below.


Papert, Seymour

‘Constructionism as a learning theory emphasises student-centred discovery learning, and educators are currently expanding its reach to the field of educational robotics in order to engage students. Seymour Papert took Piaget’s theory of constructivism and adapted it into his theory of constructionism’.

  • Constructionism
    ‘Constructionist learning is inspired by the constructivist theory that individual learners construct mental models in order to understand the world around them’. Instructional principles; Constructionism and technology; computer programming languages; References; Links, more. Wikipedia.
  • Educational Robotics and Constructionism [Papert]
    ‘Seymour Papert, a leading constructionism advocate and researcher, is for bringing technology into classrooms as much as possible. Constructionism can mostly be found being used as an educational tool in science and maths classrooms, though it is spreading to other subjects as well’.
  • Mindstorms : what did Papert argue and what does it mean for learning and education ?
    ‘All of us learn by constructing, exploring, or theory building, but most of the theory building on which we cut our teeth resulted in theories we would have to give up later. - Papert, Mindstorms [Chapter 5]’ Read this article and discover what one person found when returning to the document.
  • Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism : What’s the difference ?
    Interesting article from Edith Ackermann.
  • Resources ? Seymour Papert & Constructionism
    ‘Books and papers by Seymour Papert and resources on constructionism’. Extensive inclusion of links to all listed resources.
  • Seymour Papert
    ‘Early years and education; Career; Research; Personal Life; Awards, Honours and Legacy; References; External links’. Wikipedia.
  • The Daily Papert
    The daily words and wisdom of Dr Seymour Papert. ‘About Seymour Papert, Print Archives [multiple, downloadable articles, etc.]; Multimedia - multiple videos from the mid-1980s to approximately 2006’. Links provided for all multimedia inclusions.


  • Future of Education - Seymour Papert []
    Seymour Papert was one of a number of ‘Technology In Education Witnesses who testified on technological advances in education [1995]’. [10:21]
  • Seymour Papert
    ‘A wonderful clip made for television of Seymour Papert’s early work on using computers to spark childrens’ imaginations. Seymour Papert was the man behind the LOGO programming language’. [6:22]
  • Thinking About Thinking About Seymour
    ‘A day-long symposium at the MIT Media Lab on January 26, 2017, celebrated the ideas and research of Seymour Papert, pioneer of Constructionist learning, whose thinking and projects profoundly influenced and inspired generations of children, educators and researchers around the world ’. [5:10:24]

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Piaget, Jean

‘Jean Piaget was a philosopher and a natural scientist who was famous for the work he did studying cognitive development and learning theories encompassed in his view of “genetic epistemology”. Piaget’s theory of constructivism argues that people produce knowledge and form meaning based upon their experiences. Piaget’s theory covered learning theories, teaching methods, and education reform’.


  • 2017 Personality 06 : Jean Piaget & Constructivism
    ‘In this lecture, I talk about the great developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, who was interested, above all, in the way that knowledge is generated and transforms. His analysis of the development of morality in children, which relates early play to social cooperation and competition, is particularly profound’. [1:45:25]
  • Jean Piaget : How a Child Thinks
    ‘This short video discusses Piaget’s studies with children and how they perceive the world around them through liminal experience’. [6:05]
  • Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    ‘In this video, we take our first step into developmental psychology - that is, child psychology - by learning about Jean Piaget and his famous theory of cognitive development. We also discuss Renee Baillargeon’s work and how the Violation of Expectation [VOE] paradigm that she pioneered challenged Piaget’s theory’. [14:25 ]
  • Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Explained !
    ‘A summary of Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development’. [10:27]
  • Piaget on Piaget, Part 1 [12:25]
  • Piaget’s Stages of Development
    ‘This is a collection of clips demonstrating Piaget’s Stages of development. For Health and Social Care and Psychology’. [6.25min.]
  • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    ‘Piaget’s theory argues that we have to conquer 4 stages of cognitive development. Only once we have gone through all the stages, at what age can vary, we are able to reach full human intelligence’. [6:55]

Q - Z

Rogers, Carl

‘Carl Rogers, the creator of client-centred therapy and counselling, student-centred education and person-centred approaches to human relations and community building, is arguably the most influential American psychologist of the 20th century. From the speeches of presidents, … , to the work of parents and teachers who have learned to align with rather than stifle the child’s inborn capacity for healthful growth, Rogers’ simple, elegant and life-affirming values now permeate the culture’.

  • Carl Rogers
    Biography; Theory; Applications; Selected works; References; Sources; Further reading. Wikipedia.
  • Carl Rogers [1902-1987]
    An extensive summary of Rogers’ work and impact.
  • Carl Rogers : Experiential Theory [Prezi]
    ‘An overview of Carl Rogers Experiential Theory with biography and main points’. 10 Frames provide the information.
  • Carl Rogers Humanistic Theory and Contribution to Psychology
    ‘Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualisation took place. This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology, and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied’. Filter using the links under Article Content on the right of the page.
  • Carl Rogers Website
    ‘The Carl Rogers website serves as a gateway to the intellectual work of Dr. Carl R. Rogers and the wide variety of disciplines he influenced. Carl Rogers, the creator of client-centred counselling, student-centred education and person-centred approaches to human relations and community building’. Articles; Books; Video; Audio; Other Media; Other Sites.
  • Experiential Learning
    Overview; Link to Experiential Learning - Lesson Plan Ideas. Also links to other theorists and theories.
  • Humanistic Approach
    ‘Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person and the uniqueness of each individual’.


  • Carl Rogers - Streaming Video
    ‘Interviews & Presentations; Therapy Sessions’. Includes Interviews and Presentations, also Therapy Sessions. Most run between 20-30 minutes each, one runs for almost an hour.
  • Experiential Learning : How We All Learn Naturally
    ‘The most natural and powerful form of learning is through experience, or more precisely through reflection on doing. This is also known as experiential learning’. [3:53]
  • Humanism & Phenomenology : Carl Rogers
    2017. ‘Talking about Dr. Carl Rogers, a humanist psychotherapist in the phenomenological tradition and an expert on listening and embodied wisdom. Dr. Rogers offers very profound and practical lessons on the value of truthful relationships’. [50:09]

Skinner, B.F.

‘B.F. Skinner [1904-1990] is one of the most famous and influential figures in twentieth century psychology. A best-selling author, inventor and social commentator, Skinner was both a renowned scientist and a public intellectual known for his controversial theories of human behaviour’.

  • Behaviourism - Behaviourist Approach
    Recent articles covering multiple aspects. Links to related information. Explanations of various components. Listed summary leads to further information.
  • B. F. Skinner
    Biography and Information on the theory [multiple sections in the latter topic].
  • B. F. Skinner Foundation
    ‘The Primary Resource for Information about B. F. Skinner and his heritage’. Includes Behavioural Science; archives; publications; videos; Quote of the Day; more.
  • B.F. Skinner and Superstition in the Pigeon
    BBC Radio 4 - Mind Changers. ‘Claudia Hammond explores the legacy of BF Skinner and behaviourism. One of the most famous psychologists of the 20th century, he remains one of the most controversial’ [28:00].
  • B.F. Skinner [Wikipedia]
    Biography; Contributions to Psychology [e;g Behaviourism, Operant behaviour]; Scientific Inventions; Influence on Teaching; Contributions to social theory; Political views; Criticism; Professional career; Bibliography; References; Further Reading; Links.
  • B. F. Skinner’s Life, Theories and Influence on Psychology
    ‘Learn about Skinner’s many contributions to psychology - one of the most well-known being operant conditioning, his theory of learning - his numerous inventions and publications, along with his biography to better understand who B. F. Skinner was’.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    ‘Key Takeaways; Table of Contents; Sections linked to the previous including a video [7:48]; Mini-quiz; References’.
  • Walden Two - Skinner’s Utopian Novel
    Walden Two was Skinner’s first novel and contained a lot of his scientific knowledge and philosophy of life’.
  • What Is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Work ?
    How Reinforcement and Punishment Modify Behaviour. Introduction; Positive Reinforcement; Negative Reinforcement; Punishment; Schedules of Reinforcement; Behaviour Modification; Token Economy; Behaviour Shaping; Educational Applications; Summary; Critical Evaluation; and References. Check the Further Information section at the bottom for additional links.


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Spearman, Charles

‘Charles Edward Spearman was an influential psychologist who developed commonly used statistical measures and the statistical method known as factor analysis. His studies on the nature of human abilities led to his “two-factor” theory of intelligence’.

  • Charles Spearman
    Biography; Theory of Intelligence; Factor Analysis; References; Further reading; Links. Wikipedia.
  • Charles Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence Explained
    ‘Intelligence has always been an important component in the study of psychology. We have different types of intelligence that we recognise today, but it was Charles Spearman who brought science into the study of intelligence’. Includes a very short video.
  • Criticism of Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence
    ‘Spearman’s theory of intelligence has received some criticism too, which [includes] Criticism on the Concept, Criticism on the Approach of Cognition Analysis and Criticism on the Factor Analysis Technique’. Short summaries of these.
  • Spearman, Charles Edward []
    [1863-1945] ‘Charles Edward Spearman was an influential psychologist who developed commonly used statistical measures and the statistical method known as factor analysis. His studies on the nature of human abilities led to his “ two-factor” theory of intelligence’.
  • Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence
    ‘The g factor, where g stands for general intelligence, is a statistic used in psychometrics in an attempt to quantify the mental ability underlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. The existence of such an underlying g factor was postulated in 1904 by Charles Spearman’.
  • What Is General Intelligence [G Factor] ?
    What it is; Spearman’s role in this; The role of others. Good explanation.


Steiner, Rudolf

‘Rudolf Steiner was an Austrian scientist, philosopher and artist who lived from 1861-1925. His interests were not only in education [Steiner/Waldorf Education] but also in a wide range of fields such as medicine, agriculture, nutrition, social renewal, the environment. The approach to education is based on Steiner’s educational insights, specifically those that relate to child development. These form one aspect of what Steiner called ‘anthroposophy’, literally, ‘human wisdom’ or ‘knowledge of the human being’’.
[Steiner Education Australia]

  • Rudolf Steiner
    Biography; Breadth of activity; Philosophical Ideas; Reception; Writings [selection]; See also … ; References; Further reading; Links. Wikipedia.
  • Rudolf Steiner Archive and eLib
    ‘There are 28 books, hundreds of articles and essays and over 6 700 lectures that Rudolf Steiner gave to the world’. Extensive menu options.
  • Rudolf Steiner Web
    Biography; Waldorf Education; Complete Works; Therapeutic Speech; Rudolf Steiner and Science; many more sections looking at aspects of his life and views [from Art to Anthroposophy].
  • Steiner Australia
    The Steiner Education page provides information about Steiner Education, Steiner Education in Australia, Rudolf Steiner and the growth of the Steiner/Waldorf Education Movement, FAQs and more. Includes videos - Learn to Change the World [Part 1 - 17:50 and Part 2 - 15:36] as well as Becoming … [20:36] which provides an insight into Waldorf Education.
  • Waldorf Answers
    ‘A private site, intending to provide answers about Waldorf Education, in depth, that parents and prospective parents may have and to clear up some of the misconceptions that may exist about Waldorf education. Our intention is to provide a straightforward presentation of the facts about Waldorf education’. Multiple sections including extensive range of links to further information.


Vygotsky, Lev

‘Social constructivism is a variety of cognitive constructivism that emphasises the collaborative nature of much learning. Social constructivism was developed by post-revolutionary Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky was a cognitivist, but rejected the assumption made by cognitivists such as Piaget and Perry that it was possible to separate learning from its social context. He argued that all cognitive functions originate in [and must therefore be explained as products of] social interactions and that learning did not simply comprise the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners’.
[GSI Teaching & Resource Centre, Berkeley]

  • Beyond the Individual-Social Antimony in Discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky
    Michael Cole, James W. Vertsch. Download this or a full package with this, a summary of it and other items related to it. There are also links to related papers that can be downloaded at no cost.
  • Constructivism 2 : Vygotsky and the Zone of Proximal Development
    Note the Learning Objectives for this chapter as listed at the top of the page. Constructivism 1 and 3 on the right-hand menu cover Piaget and Bruner.
  • Expanding Vygotsky’s account of cultural mediation
    Igor Arievitch. Download this or a full package with this, a summary of it and other items related to it. There are also links to related papers that can be downloaded at no cost.
  • Lev Vygotsky Archive
    Biography; Image gallery; Links to many of his works; “The Vygotsky School”; Vygotsky on literature and art; further readings.
  • Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Child Development
    ‘What is Vygotsky’s Theory ? Vygotsky’s Concept of More Knowledgeable Other [MKO]; Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development [ZPD]; Elementary Mental Functions; Social Influences and Cognitive Development; Vygotsky’s Theory and Language; Vygotsky and Private Speech in Young Children; Application of Vygotsky’s Theory in the Classroom; Critical Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development; What are the Differences Between Vygotsky’s Theory and Piaget’s Theory ?’
  • Social Constructivism
    ‘Social constructivism is a variety of cognitive constructivism that emphasizes the collaborative nature of much learning. Vygotsky’s theory of social learning has been expanded upon by numerous later theorists and researchers.’. University of California at Berkeley.
  • The Educational Theory of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky : an analysis
    Two versions are linked from this page - A Brief Overview and a Multidimensional Analysis. They are ‘Based on writings by and about Lev Vygotsky, answers have been constructed, with extensive end notes and references, to the listed questions in eight general areas’.
  • The Vygotsky Reader
    Leiden University. Multiple 17 presentations, each in PDF format plus a Front Page and an Introduction.
  • Understanding Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory
    ‘Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory, or SDT, introduced two major principles. These principles are encapsulated in three theories or themes’. Includes two videos [21:36 and 5:04] as well as the text presentation.
  • Vygotsky and Piaget : Scientific concepts
    ‘Jean Piaget’s so-called biological perspective is often paired with the viewpoint of Lev Vygotsky when we speak of learning in humans. Both authors acknowledged the active role of children in the construction of knowledge. However, they differ in that, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that the assimilation of new information does not have to wait for an appropriate level of development but must, on the contrary, produce that development through instruction; thus, cooperation between teacher and student promotes the development of higher psychological functions’.
  • Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development
    Article with embedded videos. Includes a link to Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development [Automatically downloaded Powerpoint presentation]
  • Vygotsky Resources
    Lists with links to individual sites for each of the following - Blog Posts, Links, Videos.


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Walberg, Herbert J.

Herbert J. Walberg wrote more than 70 books and 350 papers on ‘such topics as the causes and effects of learning, teaching and instructional effectiveness, national comparisons of achievement and educational measurement and evaluation. Walberg held research posts at the Educational Testing Service and the University of Wisconsin and taught at Harvard University. He was frequently called to testify before US congressional committees and federal courts on educational matters. He was even elected a fellow of the Australian Association for Educational Research amog others. Herbert J. Walberg passed away on February 6, 2023’.

  • New !  Educational productivity : theory, evidence, and prospects
    Abstract, plus publication details [Australian Journal of Education] plus the suggestion that “Login via your institutional account to check your access”. You can also see the Abstract and the Australian Journal of Education listing [Sage Journals].
  • New !  Effective Educational Practices - UNESCO Digital Library
    A 24 page presentation by Herbert J. Walberg for the UNESCO Digital Library.
  • New !  Herbert J. Walberg
    Written following his death in 2023, it includes a profile of his life and achievement. You can also find access to related material using the menu on the left [Expertise, Research Interests and Learn More.
  • New !  Herbert J Walberg [2]
    Accedd Walberg’s books through the Open Library. 55 Books [at time of inclusion] ranging from those written by him to those reflecting multiple authors. You can sign in using a Google format or an Internet Archive format. Note : not allbooks appear to be available at this time.
  • New !  Improving Educational Productivity
    Download the complete presentation for free. Other authors working with him included David H. Monk and Margaret C. Wang.
  • New !  Motivation and Educational Productivity : Theories, Results and Implications
    Written jointly with Margaret Uguroglu and forming a chapter in Achievement Motivation. Available to purchase though you may be able to access the same through other sources.
  • New !  School Choice
    If you are interested in reading this book, there are multiple options provided to purchase copies [many at less than $10].
  • New !  Walberg’s Theory of Educational Productivity
    ‘Herbert J. Walberg is an educator turned researcher emeritus in pedagogy and psychology at the University of Illinois. He authored the theory of educational productivity, along with over 50 books. In addition, he conducted nearly 300 research studies. He’s mainly known for the model mentioned above. Walberg’s theory of educational productivity had a fundamental objective : to determine what factors influenced students’ academic performance and how they did so’. A second version of this can be found at New ! Walberg’s theory of educational productivity [2]. Be sure to check additional information via the menu at the top left of the page.


  • I have been unable to find an videos at this time, but will continue searching.

Wiliam, Dylan

Embedded Formative Assessment.

‘Dylan Wiliam stresses the importance of formative assessment as a key process for increasing teacher quality for the biggest impact on student outcomes’.


  • Assessment for Learning
    ‘Five key strategies for effective formative assessment - Dylan Wiliam and Marnie Thompson’. [6:]
  • Dylan Wiliam in South Australia
    ‘Click on each box of Learning Design for connected formative assessment videos from Professor Dylan Wiliam. Click on a second page and a third page for more videos’.
  • Dylan Wiliam : Tips for changing practice
    ACER. Video where ‘he sat down with Teacher editor Jo Earp and shared some tips for teachers and school leaders who wish to change their practice’. [2:51]
  • Embedded Formative Assessment
    ‘Dylan Wiliam stresses the importance of formative assessment as a key process for increasing teacher quality whilst having the biggest impact on student outcomes’. [6:36]
  • The Classroom Experiment - Ep.1
    [59:00] ‘In this two-part series, theory and practice meet head on as education expert Professor Dylan Wiliam sets up an experimental school classroom. For one term, he takes over a Year 8 class at a secondary comprehensive to test simple ideas that he believes could improve the quality of our children’s education’. The Classroom Experiment - Ep.2 is found here. [58:39]
  • Unpacking Formative Assessment
    ‘Dylan Wiliam unpacks formative assessment, discussing the five strategies that make up a smart formative assessment strategy : setting learning intentions, questioning, feedback, activating self and activating peers’. [3:00]
  • What formative assessment is and isn’t
    ‘This is the second of three talks with accompanying Powerpoint slides [available at] recorded originally for a school in Australia in which I discuss what formative assessment is and, perhaps more importantly, what it is not. I also outline the five “key strategies” of formative assessment, together with some practical techniques that teachers can use to develop their formative assessment practice’. [16:37]


  • 32 Learning Theories Every Teacher Should Know
    ‘We thought it might be useful to have a brief overview of many of the most important learning theories teachers should know in a single graphic, which is why we were excited to find Richard Millwood’s excellent graphic’ which you can download via this link. A larger version of the graphic can be found here. There is also an Interactive version of the graphic available from this site.
  • 6 Adult Learning Theories and How to Put Theory into Practice
    ‘Adult learning theories provide a foundation to define and “marry” a learning need to its most appropriate solution’.
  • 6 Education Theorists All Teachers Should Know Infographic
    ‘The 6 Education Theorists All Teachers Should Know presents 6 people that did some of the major research in education’.
  • A Dictionary For 21st Century Teachers : Learning Models, Theories, Trends and Technology
    ‘Terminology In Modern Pedagogy’. Includes brief explanations of many terms including theories. Also References and Citations.
  • Digital Learning Theories and Models that all Educators Should Know
    The Edvocate. ‘Too often, teachers think of technology as something to check off a list. Does this lesson use technology ? Nope … How can I sprinkle some in ? Using technology merely for the sake of using technology isn’t effective teaching. Instead, here are five digital learning theories and models that can help you tap into the benefits of technology and enhance student outcomes’.
  • Educational Psychologists, Theorists, Researchers and Authors
    From Active Learning to Social Cognition. Links for most of these to relevant information.
  • The Famous People - Psychologists
    341 included at time of update. Many inclusions are well known in the field. Others may be a considerable surprise to people. Brief notes are available for many of the inclusions.
  • Intelligence : Definition, Theories & Testing
    ‘Psychologists have developed several contrasting theories of intelligence as well as individual tests that attempt to measure this concept’.
  • Key Theorists - Behaviour Management
    ‘Following are some of the key theorist that have influenced the discipline of education’. Also includes sections on What is classroom management and Recommendations to help.
    ‘Knowledge base features learning theories that address how people learn. Useful for scholars of various fields such as educational psychology, instructional design, and human-computer interaction’. Select from the Categories listed on the left or those which have been recently added.
  • Learning Theories
    Significant collection of sites with research on specific learning areas. Grouped under both topics and people.
  • Learning Theories [ALA]
    ‘We all learn in different ways. Learning theories explain how people learn and help us better understand complex processes. We will explore three major learning theories’. Includes video [3:02].
  • Learning Theories [EDLEA]
    Link collection. Each link briefly annotated. Grouped under either Learning Theories or Teaching/Instructional Models.
  • Learning Theory [Education]
    Educational philosophy; Educational psychology; Educational neuroscience; Multiple intelligences; Multimedia learning; Other learning theories; Philosophical anthropology; Criticism; References; Further reading; External links. Wikipedia.
  • Learning Theories -
    From ACT-R [John Anderson] to Transformational Learning [J. Mezirow].
  • Learning Theories Timeline : Key Ideas from Educational Psychology
    ‘This interactive learning theories timeline highlights 50 key ideas or research papers related to nine key theories which can inform the design of blended and online learning in Higher Education. You may find the first post in this learning theories series What are learning theories and why are they important for learning design ? useful when interacting with this timeline’.
  • Prominent Theorists and Their Contributions to Education
    ‘This video contains information about the prominent education theorists that all teachers should know’. [14:57]
  • Simply Psychology - Theories of Psychology
    Extensive alphabetical listing that covers areas including Learning Theories, Child Development, Cognitive Psychology, Humanism plus several others that may interest students. Well presented material on all aspects.
  • Teaching Methods and Strategies : The Complete Guide
    ‘Using these different teaching methods, which are rooted in theory of different teaching styles, will not only help teachers reach their full potential, but more importantly engage, motivate and reach the students in their classes, whether in person or online’.
  • Theories of Educational Technology
    ‘The various papers discuss how traditional learning theories have influenced educational technology, the theoretical positions that underlie current approaches to educational technology and how perceptions of educational technology have been influenced by learning theories’.
    You need to be able to sign in to access this. A Google account signing is valid.
  • The Glossary of Education Reform
    ‘A comprehensive online resource that describes widely used school-improvement terms, concepts, and strategies for journalists, parents, and community members’. Check the options on the right for specific lists of terms. An Alphabetical Search option is available at the top of the page.
  • The Second Principle
    ‘While traditional theories of learning encompass a huge array of topics, this particular site is devoted to discussions and information on newer innovations in education that optimise learning. Some of the innovations and views included in this site strand are : newer views of intelligence, holistic learning and teaching, brain based education [aka educational neuroscience]’.

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