‘A learning style is a student’s consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of
learning. Keefe (1979) defines learning styles as the composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological factors
that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to the learning environment. Stewart
and Felicetti  define learning styles as those educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn.
Thus, learning styles are not really concerned with what learners learn, but rather how
they prefer to learn.
‘The term itself has no agreed definition but the more widely accepted definitions refer to it as a set
of teaching tactics [Galton et al, 1980], instructional format [Siedentop, 1991]. In [Physical education] circles the definition of it is the
general pattern created by using a particular set of strategies’.
[Teaching Styles in Physical Education and Mosston’s Spectrum], Teaching Style - Weebly
Learning and teaching styles and methodology are interwoven. By understanding one, you can implement the most effective of the other. This maximises effectiveness of learning and greater satisfaction and achievement for staff and students.
For information on Learning Theories and theorists, go to this page.
This page looks at learning styles, learning methods and teaching methods & styles. Several learning styles are covered in some detail, while a wider range are noted. Note : Videos have been collected in groups at the bottom of both the Learning Styles and Teaching Styles sections.
Frequently Asked Questions - Multiple Intelligences
and Related Educational Topics
Extensive PDF article written by Howard Gardner and covering a wide range of Questions → Answers.
Howard Gardner -
Aussie Childcare Network. ‘Multiple Intelligences; Multiple Intelligence and Learning Styles; Gardner’s Theories in Practice’.
Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
‘Howard Gardner – a life; Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences; the appeal of multiple intelligences; are there additional intelligences ?; Some issues and problems; Conclusion; Further reading and references’.
Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences
and education [Academia.edu]
Read the document online or download as a Free PDF document. There are also links to related documents which can be downloaded for free.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A fair coverage, but interesting to note it includes the following - ‘While Gardner’s MI have been conflated with learning styles, Gardner himself denies they are one and the same. The problem Gardner has expressed with the idea of learning styles is that the concept is ill defined and there “is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a ‘one size fits all approach’” [as cited in Strauss, 2013]’.
Integrating Learning Styles
and Multiple Intelligences
‘We believe that the integration of learning styles and multiple intelligence theory may minimise their respective limitations and enhance their strengths, and we provide some practical suggestions for teachers to successfully integrate and apply learning styles and multiple intelligence theory in the classroom’.
I Think … Therefore … MI
Multiple Intelligences in Education, Sections cover criteria, overview, profiles, domains, MI links, Brain links, unit templates, MI and instruction, lesson templates, PDF file of suggested software.
& Multiple Intelligences
Learning Styles Explained - topics. Multiple Intelligence explained - topics. Practical tips for you.
‘Howard Gardner’s official authoritative site of Multiple Intelligences. Includes Beginner’s Guide to MI and The Components of MI [use ABOUT link in top menu], Questions, Practices, Resources and more’.
Stresses that ‘the intelligences are equal in their importance’. Clear coverage of each.
Tapping into Multiple Intelligences
Concept to Classroom Workshop. Eight sections, each with four sub-sections - Explanation, Demonstration, Exploration, Implementation. Includes data and videos.
MYER-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
Cautionary comments regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Free PDF download or read online. ‘The present article evaluates several of the psychometric limitations and criticisms of the MBTI that warrant considerable caution when making inferences from its 4-letter type formula. The author concludes that the MBTI, while offering much intuitive appeal, may not yet be able to support the claims its promoters make’.
How the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Works
‘This article discusses how the Myers-Briggs types were created, what the 16 different MBTI types are, and how this personality typing system works’.
Myers-Briggs’ 16 Personality Types
‘The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [MBTI] is an introspective, self report evaluation that identifies a person’s personality type and psychological preferences. The purpose of this assessment is to assign individuals into one of four categories based on how they perceive the world and make decisions, enabling respondents to further explore and understand their own personalities’.
Myers & Briggs Foundation
Information about the assessment, MBTI® Basics, Common Misconceptions, Types in Everyday Life and much more.
Myers-Briggs Types of
TutorialsPoint. ‘The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator is a set of psychometric questionnaires designed to weigh psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions’.
- Myers-Briggs - Working out Your Type
Personality Types and Careers
‘The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [MBTI] personality types are used in personal and organizational development. The personality theory behind the tool is most useful for building self-awareness. It can help you understand how your personality type influences. If you’re considering your next career move and your pros and cons list is giving you nothing, understanding your MBTI type might just provide the clarity you need’. In addition to the above aspect, interesting though it may prove, there is also further information about the Myers-Briggs approach.
OTHER LEARNING STYLES
Daniel Willingham’s Learning Styles FAQ
The name says it all. Also has a link to a range of videos.
7 styles are included and briefly discussed using the following pattern - Title, Description, When Used, Reason for using this style, Strengths and Weakness. A couple also have an Example [e.g. task sheet].
Do Learning Styles Exist ?
Interesting article with extensive references.
Introduction to Learning Styles
Overview, Perceptual Modalities, Multiple Intelligences, Mind Styles, Learning Styles Indicator, Myers-Briggs, Others, extensive bibliography [including book recommendations], links.
Kolb’s Learning Styles and Experiential Learning
‘Kolb’s experiential learning theory works on two levels : a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles. Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned with the learner’s internal cognitive processes’.
Learning, Training, and Human Performance Glossary
Use the glossary to target Learning, Training and Performance definitions. Select the initial letters and scroll down the listing. Each has a number of definitions relating to aspects of these three topics.
Learning Styles and Index of Learning Styles
‘Resources for a model of learning styles generally referred to as the Felder-Silverman model’. Also has an Index of Learning Styles including an online Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire.
Learning Styles [Centre for Teaching, Vanderbilt University]
‘What are Learning Styles ?; Caution !; Why Are They So Popular ?; Now What ?’. You may also be interested in the range of other teaching guides listed on the right.
Learning Styles - Concepts and Evidence
A 2009 article by a group of American professors looking at learning styles as indicated in the Summary on the initial page of the document. PDF download available.
Learning Styles [emtech]
‘Learning styles have become more popular in recent years due to ADHD and the Multiple Intelligences theory of Howard Gardner. Many researchers question the validity of the concept and others insist on its importance. The research is ambiguous, with some studies showing no significant differences and others the contrary’. Extensive listing of links.
Learning Styles & Preferences
Use the Index Menu on the left to access specific information related to particular aspects. You can also access a range of information about many aspects related to Learning using the links on the Learning, Training, and Development Theories and Concepts page.
Learning Styles Resource Site
‘This site is intended to provide a resource to teachers, students, parents and educators in the area of learning styles. The site offers some information and comparison related to many of the leading theories and inventories, in addition to resource and research links’.
Learning Styles - …
The Models, Myths and Misconceptions – and What They Mean for Your Learning. ‘In this article, we look at how the key learning styles theories were developed and explore their intentions and limitations. We also show why it’s still valuable to understand your personal approach to learning – even if there’s no single, “magic bullet” solution for any of us’.
Learning Styles : What are They, Models and Discussion
‘There is no one-size-fits-all method of learning. To learn and teach most effectively, we must know an individual’s preferred learning styles’. All sections covered. Well presented and balanced.
Learning Styles [Wikipedia]
Overview of models [Kolb, VAK/VARK model, Gregorc’s model, …], Assessment methods, In the Classroom, Criticism, References, Further reading, links.
Overview of Learning Styles
7 learning styles and background to the concept. Links access further information on each style. They also provide a Free learning styles inventory [test, quiz or questionnaire], including graphical results which you can take.
Teaching Strategies for the 8 Different Learning
‘In this article, we discuss methods of teaching for the eight different learning styles, as well as conflicting evidence which suggests these learning styles may not be as effective as once believed’.
VARK - A Guide to Learning Preferences
‘A questionnaire that helps your learning by suggesting the strategies you should be using’. This section is free. If in doubt about the concept, check details via the About item in the top menu.
What is my Learning Style ?
‘Since we all learn in different ways, the best study techniques vary from person to person. In order to study effectively, you must understand your personal learning style and which study approach works the best for you’.
What is Your Learning Style ?
‘Each of us learns and processes information with our own special style, though we share some learning patterns, preferences and approaches. Take a few minutes to complete the following questionnaire to assess your preferred learning style’.
Howard Gardner Discusses Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences and the theory behind it as presented by Howard Gardner at a Conference in 2016. [51:53]
Introduction to Learning Styles and Preferences
‘Introduces the basics of learning styles and preferences and invites students to complete a comprehensive learning styles and preferences survey’. [5:38]
Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory & How to Use It
‘Gonzaga University Communications & Leadership Masters Program’. [8:29]
Learning Styles Don’t Exist
‘Professor Daniel Willingham describes research showing that learning styles are a myth’. [6:54]
Learning Styles of the Net Generation
‘A presentation about Net Generation learning styles’. [9:05]
Learning Styles - Personalised Education
‘Provides a quick overview of learning styles along with a link to see an example of a personalised education school’. [9:32]
Learning Styles - Videos
Multiple videos of varying lengths, both general and specific topics [see column on the right]. Also includes videos from supporters as well as those who believe they are either not needed or do not exist. They also range across a wide length of times.
Myers Briggs Personality Types Explained - Which One Are You ?
‘ In a previous video, we talked about the Myers-Briggs test [see final link in this section]. If you haven’t already watched this video, you can check it out after watching this one. But in this video, we’ll take a closer look at the Myers-Briggs test - a method of sorting and categorising different personalities’. [11:36]
Access a range of videos about these indicators available from YouTube. Lengths vary. Check column on the right for those available.
Teaching Strategies - Learning Styles
‘Teaching strategies on effectively reaching kinaesthetic, visual and auditory learning styles’. [4:25]
What Is Your Myers Briggs Personality Type ?
‘One of the most popular personality quizzes around is the Myers Briggs test. Based off Carl Jung’s personality types, Katharine and Isabel Briggs-Myers developed the test to be more accessible to everyday people. Each personality type is made up of a 4 letter acronym depending on how you view and interact with the world’. [3:32]
Teaching Styles & Methods
20 Collaborative Learning Tips and Strategies
‘What are some ways to include best practices for collaborative learning in your classroom ?’
Benefits of Collaborative Learning
‘This review article outlines benefits of learning in collaboration style, beginning with the concept of the term and continuing with the advantages created by collaborative methods. It sets out major benefits of collaborative learning into four categories of : social, psychological, academic and assessment benefits’. PDF format available.
Collaborative Learning [Edutopia]
‘Working together to solve problems and complete projects deepens students’ learning and builds collaborative skills. Learn how to design activities to help develop these skills’.
Learning [Centre for Teaching Innovation]
‘Research shows that educational experiences that are active, social, contextual, engaging and student-owned lead to deeper learning. The benefits of collaborative learning’ has many of these factors.
Collaborative vs. Cooperative Learning
‘Discover the real difference in collaborative and cooperative learning and how can they be used effectively in the classroom’.
Enter the term into the Search Box and gain the appropriate results. To ensure access to the listed documents check the Full text available on ERIC option.
Advantages and Benefits of Cooperative Learning
‘Discover the advantages of cooperative learning in a professional environment and how you can benefit from it as an individual’.
An introduction to cooperative learning
The Education Hub, New Zealand. ‘Cooperative learning involves students working together in small groups to accomplish shared goals or complete group tasks. It is widely recognised as a teaching strategy that promotes socialisation and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subjects and curriculum areas’.
An Overview Of Cooperative Learning
‘Definition of Cooperative Learning, Types Of Cooperative Learning, Basic Elements of Cooperation, The Validating Research plus Conclusions and Summary’.
Benefits of Cooperative Learning
‘Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement’. Updated version of an original article .
Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning - Similarities &
‘Cooperative and collaborative approaches to group work are very similar. However, scholars have highlighted key differences between the approaches’.
Multiple selections from a wide range of sources. You may be able to view the chapter involved or you can purchase the book from which it was taken. You can also find links to related articles each of the ones opened. If unavailable, you are then advised to Access through your Institution.
Cooperative Learning [PublicSchoolReview.com. ]
‘Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject’.
Cooperative Learning : Benefits, Strategies, and Activities
‘This guide gives you a clear understanding of cooperative learning and how the elements of this educational approach heavily contribute to team development in the workplace’ and other venues.
Sites For Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Ideas
Larry Ferlazzo. A newer site on this topic  can be found at Q&A Collections : Cooperative & Collaborative Learning. In this EdWeek blog, an experiment in knowledge-gathering, Ferlazzo will address readers’ questions. It includes links to ten years of posts on the topic. Send your questions to email@example.com.
in Cooperative Learning & Collaborative Learning
‘Defining collaborative learning and cooperative learning and how they both contribute to pivotal knowledge building and critical thinking skills can be confusing. The purpose of both approaches is the same; to provide students opportunities to engage with each other in thoughtful learning. The underlying premise of these techniques is that learning is enhanced by peer interaction’.
What is Cooperative Learning ?
‘Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project. It requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students. These structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways. There are also different types of cooperative groups appropriate for different situations’.
How to Teach Children About Disabilities and
‘This resource, developed at Baylor University, discusses the importance of teaching youth to share and accept others’ differences and explains how to build an inclusive culture for children. It also outlines age-appropriate ways to teach children about disabilities and strategies for fostering empathy and understanding in a social environment’.
Including Students with Disabilities
Enter the term into the Search Box and gain appropriate results. To ensure access to the listed documents check the Full text available on ERIC option.
Classification, alternatives, legal issues, frequency of use, necessary resources, common practices, collaboration, selection of students for inclusion, relationship to progressive education, arguments for full inclusion, positive effects, criticism, social and cultural inclusion, references, links. Wikipedia.
Includes both Strategies for Successful Inclusion and Inclusive Classroom Resources to use with them.
Inclusive Education and its
‘Inclusive education is about looking at the ways our schools, classrooms, programs and lessons are designed so that all children can participate and learn. Inclusion is also about finding different ways of teaching so that classrooms actively involve all children’. Canada.
Inclusive Education - What Does the Research Say ?
Australian Alliance for Inclusive Education. Information, description, links to research documents.
Opening All Options : …
“Specific Learning Disability Resource. Education - Teaching and Assessment Strategies”. Check the items in the menu on the left. University of Tasmania.
The Inclusive Education Library
10 sections of information including Instructional Strategies and Supports and Learning Technologies.
The Teacher’s Gallery
‘The Teacher’s Gallery offers learning opportunities and tools related to inclusive education to both teachers and the broader education community’.
We Learn Better : Inclusive Schools Benefit All Children
‘Effective models of inclusive education not only benefit students with disabilities, but also create an environment in which every student, including those who do not have disabilities, has the opportunity to flourish. Here are some ways in which inclusive educational practices build a school’s capacity to educate all learners effectively’.
36 Cutting-Edge Teaching Strategies &
Techniques for Learning in 2022
‘There’s more than one way to teach a diverse and dynamic classroom. In this post you’ll find a comprehensive list of 36 teaching strategies to use [in maths class and beyond] and a list of essential resources for using them effectively’.
Classroom Management Resources
Teachervision. ‘General Teaching Methods & Strategies; Cooperative Learning; Inclusion; Teaching Reading & Language Arts; Using Technology; Addressing Special Needs; Learning From Social Interaction; The Classroom Environment; Multiple Intelligences; and Related Resources’.
Effective teaching methods that work for Indigenous students :
EduResearch Matters. ‘What does effective teaching of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students look like ? Thousands of research studies have been dedicated to finding answers to this question. But much of what we think we know, or hear, about Indigenous education remains mired in myths and legends’. Sections include Specific pedagogies identified as effective and Contributing factors to effective teaching.
Guide to Teaching [UNSW]
‘Created to support teaching staff at UNSW in their teaching and professional development. Student-Centred Teaching, The UNSW Context, Support for Staff & Students and Preparing to Teach a Course’.
Teaching Strategies [HITS]
Victoria. ‘This page provides an overview of the 10 high impact teaching strategies [HITS] with a selection of relevant resources for further learning’. A PDF version of the High Impact Teaching Strategies booklet can be downloaded using this link .
Instructional Methods Information
A range of Instructional methods showing Advantages, Disadvantages and Preparation.
Teaching Methods [Teach.com]
‘The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction’. Multiple sections and explanations.
Teaching Methods and Strategies
: The Complete Guide
Article covering a wide range of methods with links to other individual methods.
Teaching Methods Resources
Annotated links to specific information. Scootle, Australia. 45 listed at time of update.
Teaching Methods [SERC]
‘Each pedagogic approach is described succinctly so you can quickly understand how the technique might be relevant to your teaching. Descriptions include tips for effectively using each technique, related research on their impacts on learning, as well as a set of example activities’. Extensive listing in the column on the right.
Teaching Methods :
‘Differentiated instruction is not really a new concept; it has been with us for a very long time in the guise of mixed-ability teaching. It is really about taking account of significant differences among students in terms of their ability [or disability], rate of learning, language proficiency, literacy and numeracy skills - then using this knowledge to adapt the way the curriculum and learning activities are presented’.
‘Contemporary teaching practice fosters the skills and competencies that learners will need to thrive in their futures. Contemporary teaching strategies are often learner-centred and inclusive while engaging learners in collaborative tasks’. These were originally designed to be used with home learning but should also be considered for classroom activities and approaches. NSW. Department of Education.
The Complete List of Teaching Methods and Strategies
MTS Blog. ‘After reading this blog, you will understand the difference between teaching methods and strategies, different teaching methodologies and strategies, their advantages and disadvantages, and how a teacher should prepare before the class lecture’.
5 Common Teaching Styles - How Effective Are They ?
A Tutor. ‘Every teacher has their teaching style and each method depends on varying factors, the activity itself, the students and the teacher’s personality. In this article, we will talk about the 5 most common teaching styles and how effective they really are’.
10 Evidence-Based Teaching
Strategies for 2021
‘These are evidence-based teaching strategies. If you want to make a larger difference in how well your students do, then learn about these 10 evidence-based teaching strategies. Some of them may surprise you !’ If you select Helpful Articles from the top menu you will be able to access related items.
Different teaching styles suit different students
‘Why teaching styles matter; The impact of learning styles; What are the different teaching styles ?; What is the most effective teaching style ?; The changing nature of teaching styles’ and more. Article from an independent high school blog.
Discover Your Learning Style : Comprehensive Guide
on Different learning Styles
‘There is no right or wrong answer to which learning style, or mix of learning styles, is best for you. This guide will help you understand what each learning style is, as well as how teachers can alter their instruction to help students of each learning style’.
Glossary of Instructional Strategies
Extensive, alphabetical listing with brief descriptors for each inclusion.
Interactive Teaching Styles used
in the Classroom
Resilient Educator. ‘Now is the time to start bringing life into your teaching styles. Here are some of the most effective ways to engage your students’.
Pedagogy Focus : Teaching Styles
‘In our Pedagogy Focus series we explore the various Teaching Styles and the differences between them’. Monitor this entry as TES is currently transitioning all information to updated site.
Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of South Carolina, USA. ‘Your teaching style reflects on what you value in education, what methods you believe are effective and how your students learn your subject best’.
Teaching Styles [CRLT]
‘Different instructors perceive the classroom environment in different ways. The resources on this page provide guidance for instructors in how to think about their own teaching style and its impact on student learning’.
Teaching Styles : Everything you need to know about teaching methods
‘Have you ever thought about how each classroom teaches things differently ? In this article, we answer what are teaching styles, why are there multiple teaching styles, what are the different styles and which style works the best today ?’
Teaching Styles In Physical Education [The PE Project]
‘The spectrum of teaching styles were first designed by Mosston and Ashworth as they designed a cohesive framework to serve as a guide for physical education teachers. It consists of 11 different teaching styles, five teacher-centred [aka reproductive/direct] and six student-centred [aka productive/indirect]’.
The 5 Most Effective Teaching Styles and Everything
You Need to Know about them
‘Researchers have now been able to pinpoint some of the most effective teaching styles that you can employ in your practice ! We have prepared this comprehensive guide for all five of them. Read on to find out and master each one so you can teach more effectively’.
The Ultimate Guide to Teaching Styles in Higher Education
‘Evaluate these 11 flexible teaching styles to make your next class a place of engagement, connection and belonging’. [Updated 2022.]
What is pedagogy ? The definition, principles and approaches
‘Pedagogy is defined simply as the method, and practice, of teaching. It encompasses : Teaching styles, Teaching theory and Feedback and assessment’. Part of a series of articles on pedagogy.
What is Your Teaching Style ?
5 Effective Teaching Methods for Your Classroom. ‘Every teacher has her or his own style of teaching. And as traditional teaching styles evolve with the advent of differentiated instruction, more and more teachers are adjusting their approach depending on their students’ learning needs. But there are a few fundamental teaching styles most educators tend to use. Which one is yours ?’
Cooperation vs Collaboration : When To Use Each Approach
‘Collaboration and cooperation are both vital for creative work. This short, sketchy video explores the difference between the two and why it matters for creative work’. [1:23]
Cooperative Learning Model : Strategies & Examples
‘This video begins by offering some reasons as to why cooperative learning should be used in schools by teachers for students. The video continues by describing several different ways teachers can group students for this learning environment. Groupings can be by performance level, heterogeneous, homogeneous, random and more. Then it gives several different examples of cooperative learning’. [4:33]
Cooperative Learning -
Multiple videos on this topic running from 1 - 27 minutes. From what it is to using it in the classroom.
Inclusion & Special Education
Multiple videos of varying length and specific aspects [3 - 37 minutes]. Includes videos on strategies. Not all videos included are applicable to this area.
Teaching Method - Topic
Theories, methods, modelling, innovation, more. Multiple videos. Lengths range from 3 to 87 minutes. Some very specific aspects, some Ted Talks, some with a more general approach.
Teaching Methods for Inspiring the Students of the Future
Joe Ruhl, TedX presentation. [17:41]
Teaching Styles and Strategies Overview
‘Ryan Banow from the Gwenna Moss Centre for Teaching Effectiveness discusses Teaching Styles and Strategies. This video has closed captions’. [9:56]
The 7 Keys to Creative Collaboration
‘In this sketch note video, we explore what makes creative collaboration work. What makes creative collaboration work effectively ? Here are seven ideas’. [2:17]
The Jigsaw Method
‘This cooperative learning strategy increases student engagement, encourages collaboration and results in better learning. Learn how to use the basic Jigsaw method, another variation called Jigsaw II and get tips for troubleshooting, like what to do if you can’t divide students evenly’. [6:22]