Learning & Teaching Styles

Learning style

‘A learning style is a student’s consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. Keefe (1979) defines learning styles as the composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to the learning environment. Stewart and Felicetti [1992] define learning styles as those educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn. Thus, learning styles are not really concerned with what learners learn, but rather how they prefer to learn.
Learning Styles

Teaching style

‘The term itself has no agreed definition but the more widely accepted definitions refer to it as a set of teaching tactics [Galton et al, 1980], instructional format [Siedentop, 1991]. In [Physical education] circles the definition of it is the general pattern created by using a particular set of strategies’.
[Teaching Styles in Physical Education and Mosston’s Spectrum], Teaching Style - Weebly

Learning and teaching styles and methodology are interwoven. By understanding one, you can implement the most effective of the other. This maximises effectiveness of learning and greater satisfaction and achievement for staff and students.

For information on Learning Theories and theorists, go to this page.

This page looks at learning styles, learning methods and teaching methods & styles. Several learning styles are covered in some detail, while a wider range are noted. Note : Videos have been collected in groups at the bottom of both the Learning Styles and Teaching Styles sections.

Learning Styles

Multiple Intelligences

  • Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligence
    Aussie Childcare Network. ‘Multiple Intelligences; Multiple Intelligence and Learning Styles; Gardner’s Theories in Practice’.
  • Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
    ‘Howard Gardner – a life; Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences; the appeal of multiple intelligences; are there additional intelligences ?; Some issues and problems; Conclusion; Further reading and references’.
  • Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
    A fair coverage, but interesting to note it includes the following - ‘While Gardner’s MI have been conflated with learning styles, Gardner himself denies they are one and the same. The problem Gardner has expressed with the idea of learning styles is that the concept is ill defined and there “is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a ‘one size fits all approach’” [as cited in Strauss, 2013]’.
  • Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
    ‘We believe that the integration of learning styles and multiple intelligence theory may minimise their respective limitations and enhance their strengths, and we provide some practical suggestions for teachers to successfully integrate and apply learning styles and multiple intelligence theory in the classroom’.
  • I Think … Therefore … MI !
    Multiple Intelligences in Education, Sections cover criteria, overview, profiles, domains, MI links, Brain links, unit templates, MI and instruction, lesson templates, PDF file of suggested software.
  • Learning Styles & Multiple Intelligences
    Learning Styles Explained - topics. Multiple Intelligence explained - topics. Practical tips for you.
  • Multiple Intelligences
    Stresses that ‘the intelligences are equal in their importance’. Clear coverage of each.
  • Tapping into Multiple Intelligences
    Concept to Classroom Workshop. Eight sections, each with four sub-sections - Explanation, Demonstration, Exploration, Implementation. Includes data and videos.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

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Other Learning Styles

  • Daniel Willingham’s Learning Styles FAQ
    The name says it all. Also has a link to a video.
  • Description of Teaching Styles
    7 styles are included and briefly discussed using the following pattern - Title, Description, When Used, Reason for using this style, Strengths and Weakness. A couple also have an Example [e.g. task sheet].
  • Do Learning Styles Exist ?
    Interesting article with extensive references.
  • Introduction to Learning Styles
    Overview, Perceptual Modalities, Multiple Intelligences, Mind Styles, Learning Styles Indicator, Myers-Briggs, Others, extensive bibliography [including book recommendations], links.
  • Kolb’s Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Cycle
    ‘Kolb’s experiential learning theory works on two levels : a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles. Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned with the learner’s internal cognitive processes’.
  • Learning, Training, and Human Performance Glossary
    Use the glossary to target Learning, Training and Performance definitions. Select the initial letters and scroll down the listing. Each has a number of definitions relating to aspects of these three topics.
  • Learning Styles
    ‘Resources for a model of learning styles generally referred to as the Felder-Silverman model’. Also has an Index of Learning Styles including an online Questionnaire.
  • Learning Styles [Centre for Teaching, Vanderbilt University]
    ‘What are Learning Styles ?; Caution !; Why Are They So Popular ?; Now What ?’. You may also be interested in the range of other teaching guides listed on the right.
  • Learning Styles - Concepts and Evidence
    A 2009 article by a group of American professors looking at learning styles as indicated in the Summary on the initial page of the actual document.
  • Learning Styles [emtech]
    ‘Learning styles have become more popular in recent years due to ADHD and the Multiple Intelligences theory of Howard Gardner. Many researchers question the validity of the concept and others insist on its importance. The research is ambiguous, with some studies showing no significant differences and others the contrary’. Extensive listing of links.
  • Learning Styles & Preferences
    Use the Index Menu on the left to access specific information related to particular aspects. You can also access a range of information about many aspects related to Learning using the links on the Learning, Training, and Development Theories and Concepts page.
  • Learning Styles Resource Page
    ‘This site is intended to provide a resource to teachers, students, parents and educators in the area of learning styles. This site offers some information and comparison related to many of the leading theories and inventories, in addition to resource and research links’.
  • Learning Styles - …
    The Models, Myths and Misconceptions – and What They Mean for Your Learning. ‘In this article, we look at how the key learning styles theories were developed and explore their intentions and limitations. We also show why it’s still valuable to understand your personal approach to learning – even if there’s no single, “magic bullet” solution for any of us’.
  • Learning Styles : What are They, Models and Discussion
    ‘There is no one-size-fits-all method of learning. To learn and teach most effectively, we must know an individual’s preferred learning styles’. All sections covered. Well presented and balanced.
  • Learning Styles [Wikipedia]
    Overview of models [Kolb, VAK/VARK model, Gregorc’s model, …], Assessment methods, In the Classroom, Criticism, References, Further reading, links.
  • Overview of Learning Styles
    7 learning styles and background to the concept. Links access further information on each style. They also provide a Free learning styles inventory [test, quiz or questionnaire], including graphical results which you can take.
  • Teaching Strategies for the 8 Different Learning Styles
    ‘In this article, we discuss methods of teaching for the eight different learning styles, as well as conflicting evidence which suggests these learning styles may not be as effective as once believed’.
  • VARK - A Guide to Learning Preferences
    ‘A questionnaire that helps your learning by suggesting the strategies you should be using’. This section is free. If in doubt about the concept, check details via the About item in the top menu.
  • What is my Learning Style ? [Neumann University]
    ‘Since we all learn in different ways, the best study techniques vary from person to person. In order to study effectively, you must understand your personal learning style and which study approach works the best for you’.
  • What is Your Learning Style ?
    ‘Each of us learns and processes information with our own special style, though we share some learning patterns, preferences, and approaches. Take a few minutes to complete the following questionnaire to assess your preferred learning style’.


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Teaching Styles & Methods

Collaborative Learning

  • 20 Collaborative Learning Tips and Strategies For Teachers
    ‘What are some ways to include best practices for collaborative learning in your classroom ?’
  • Benefits of Collaborative Learning
    ‘This review article outlines benefits of learning in collaboration style, begins with the concept of the term and continues with the advantages created by collaborative methods. It sets out major benefits of collaborative learning into four categories of; social, psychological, academic and assessment benefits’. PDF format available.
  • Collaborative Learning [Edutopia]
    ‘Working together to solve problems and complete projects deepens students’ learning and builds collaborative skills. Learn how to design activities to help develop these skills’.
  • Collaborative Learning [Centre for Teaching Innovation]
    ‘Research shows that educational experiences that are active, social, contextual, engaging and student-owned lead to deeper learning. The benefits of collaborative learning’ has many of these factors.
  • Collaborative Learning vs. Cooperative Learning
    ‘Discover the real difference in collaborative and cooperative learning and how can they be used effectively in the classroom’.
  • Teacher Collaboration
    Enter the term into the Search Box and gain the appropriate results. To ensure access to the listed documents check the Full text available on ERIC option.

Cooperative Learning

  • Cooperative Learning : An Overview and Analysis
    ‘Introduction, Quick Links for this page, Cooperative Learning 101, Benefits of Cooperative Learning, Initial Considerations, Assessing Preferred Learning Styles, Disadvantages of Cooperative Learning and Conclusion’.
  • Benefits of Cooperative Learning
    ‘How can cooperative learning benefit you and your group ? Additional Benefits of Cooperative Learning’.
  • Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning - Similarities & Differences
    ‘Cooperative and collaborative approaches to group work are very similar. However, scholars have highlighted key differences between the approaches’.
  • Cooperative and Collaborative Learning
    ‘How this technique for using small, cooperative groups in education can help improve learning in your class. Proceed from Concept To Classroom as you begin to apply new ideas to your lessons’.
  • Cooperative Learning ‘Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject’.
  • The Best Sites For Cooperative & Collaborative Learning Ideas
    Larry Ferlazzo. A newer site on this topic [2021] can be found at Q&A Collections : Cooperative & Collaborative Learning. In this EdWeek blog, an experiment in knowledge-gathering, Ferlazzo will address readers’ questions. It includes links to ten years of posts on the topic. Send your questions to
  • The Difference in Cooperative Learning & Collaborative Learning
    ‘Defining collaborative learning and cooperative learning and how they both contribute to pivotal knowledge building and critical thinking skills can be confusing. The purpose of both approaches is the same; to provide students opportunities to engage with each other in thoughtful learning. The underlying premise of these techniques is that learning is enhanced by peer interaction’.
  • What is Cooperative Learning ?
    ‘Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project. It requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students. These structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways. There are also different types of cooperative groups appropriate for different situations’.
  • An Overview Of Cooperative Learning
    ‘Definition of Cooperative Learning, Types Of Cooperative Learning, Basic Elements of Cooperation, The Validating Research plus Conclusions and Summary’.

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Inclusive Education & Classroom

  • Including Students with Disabilities
    Enter the term into the Search Box and gain appropriate results. To ensure access to the listed documents check the Full text available on ERIC option.
  • Inclusion [Education]
    Classification, alternatives, legal issues, frequency of use, necessary resources, common practices, collaboration, selection of students for inclusion, relationship to progressive education, arguments for full inclusion, positive effects, criticism, social and cultural inclusion, references, links. Wikipedia.
  • Inclusive Education
    Includes both strategies and resources to use with them.
  • Inclusive Education and its Benefits
    ‘Inclusive education is about looking at the ways our schools, classrooms, programs and lessons are designed so that all children can participate and learn. Inclusion is also about finding different ways of teaching so that classrooms actively involve all children’. Canada.
  • Inclusive Education - What Does the Research Say ?
    Australian Alliance for Inclusive Education. Information, description, links to research documents.
  • Opening All Options : …
    Specific Learning Disability Resource. Education - Teaching and Assessment Strategies”. Check the Previous sections items in the menu on the left.
  • The Inclusive Education Library
    10 sections of information including Instructional Strategies and Supports and Learning Technologies.
  • The Teacher’s Gallery
    ‘The Teacher’s Gallery offers learning opportunities and tools related to inclusive education to both teachers and the broader education community’.
  • Together We Learn Better : Inclusive Schools Benefit All Children
    ‘Effective models of inclusive education not only benefit students with disabilities, but also create an environment in which every student, including those who do not have disabilities, has the opportunity to flourish. Here are some ways in which inclusive educational practices build a school’s capacity to educate all learners effectively’.

Teaching Methods

  • 36 Cutting-Edge Teaching Strategies & Techniques for 2021 Learning
    ‘There’s more than one way to teach a diverse and dynamic classroom. In this post you’ll find a comprehensive list of 36 teaching strategies to use [in maths class and beyond] and a list of essential resources for using them effectively’.
  • Classroom Management
    Teachervision. ‘General Teaching Methods & Strategies; Cooperative Learning; Inclusion; Teaching Reading & Language Arts; Using Technology; Addressing Special Needs; Learning From Social Interaction; The Classroom Environment; Multiple Intelligences; and Related Resources’.
  • Effective teaching methods that work for Indigenous students : latest research
    EduResearch Matters. ‘What does effective teaching of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students look like ? Thousands of research studies have been dedicated to finding answers to this question. But much of what we think we know, or hear, about Indigenous education remains mired in myths and legends’. Sections include Specific pedagogies identified as effective and Contributing factors to effective teaching.
  • Guide to Teaching [UNSW]
    ‘Created to support teaching staff at UNSW in their teaching and professional development. Student-Centred Teaching, The UNSW Context, Support for Staff & Students and Preparing to Teach a Course’.
  • High Impact Teaching Strategies [HITS]
    Victoria. ‘This page provides an overview of the 10 high impact teaching strategies [HITS] with a selection of relevant resources for further learning’. A PDF version of the High Impact Teaching Strategies booklet can be downloaded using this link .
  • Teaching Methods
    A range of Instructional methods showing Advantages, Disadvantages and Preparation.
  • Teaching Methods []
    ‘The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction’. Multiple sections and explanations.
  • Teaching Methods and Strategies : The Complete Guide
    Article covering a wide range of methods with links to other individual methods.
  • Teaching Methods Resources
    Annotated links to specific information. Scootle, Australia.
  • Teaching Methods [SERC]
    ‘Each pedagogic approach is described succinctly so you can quickly understand how the technique might be relevant to your teaching. Descriptions include tips for effectively using each technique, related research on their impacts on learning, as well as a set of example activities’.
  • Teaching Methods : Differentiated instruction
    ‘Differentiated instruction is not really a new concept; it has been with us for a very long time in the guise of mixed-ability teaching. It is really about taking account of significant differences among students in terms of their ability [or disability], rate of learning, language proficiency, literacy and numeracy skills - then using this knowledge to adapt the way the curriculum and learning activities are presented’.
  • Teaching Strategies
    ‘Contemporary teaching practice fosters the skills and competencies that learners will need to thrive in their futures. Contemporary teaching strategies are often learner-centred and inclusive while engaging learners in collaborative tasks’. These were originally designed to be used with home learning but should also be considered for classroom activities and approaches. NSW.
  • The Complete List of Teaching Methods and Strategies
    MTS Blog. ‘After reading this blog, you will understand the difference between teaching methods and strategies, different teaching methodologies and strategies, their advantages and disadvantages, and how a teacher should prepare himself before the class lecture’.

Teaching Styles

  • 5 Common Teaching Styles - How Effective Are They ?
    A Tutor. ‘Every teacher has its teaching style, and each method depends on varying factors, the activity itself, the students and the teacher’s personality. In this article, we will talk about the 5 most common teaching styles and how effective they really are’.
  • 10 Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for 2021
    ‘These are evidence-based teaching strategies. If you want to make a larger difference in how well your students do, then learn about these 10 evidence-based teaching strategies. Some of them may surprise you !’
  • Different teaching styles suit different students
    ‘Why teaching styles matter; The impact of learning styles; What are the different teaching styles ?; What is the most effective teaching style ?; The changing nature of teaching styles’ and more. Article from an independent high school blog.
  • Discover Your Learning Style : The Definitive Guide
    ‘There is no right or wrong answer to which learning style, or mix of learning styles, is best for you. This guide will help you understand what each learning style is, as well as how teachers can alter their instruction to help students of each learning style’.
  • Glossary of Instructional Strategies
    Extensive, alphabetical listing with brief descriptors for each inclusion.
  • Interactive Teaching Styles used in the Classroom
    Resilient Educator. ‘Now is the time to start bringing life into your teaching styles. Here are some of the most effective ways to engage your students’.
  • Pedagogy Focus : Teaching Styles
    ‘In our Pedagogy Focus series we explore the various Teaching Styles and the differences between them’.
  • Teaching Styles
    Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of South Carolina, USA. ‘Your teaching style reflects on what you value in education, what methods you believe are effective and how your students learn your subject best’.
  • Teaching Styles [CRLT]
    ‘Different instructors perceive the classroom environment in different ways. The resources on this page provide guidance for instructors in how to think about their own teaching style and its impact on student learning’.
  • Teaching Styles : Everything you need to know about teaching methods
    ‘Have you ever thought about how each classroom teaches things differently ? In this article, we answer what are teaching styles, why are there multiple teaching styles, what are the different styles and which style works the best today ?’
  • Teaching Styles In Physical Education [The PE Project]
    ‘The spectrum of teaching styles were first designed by Mosston and Ashworth as they designed a cohesive framework to serve as a guide for physical education teachers. It consists of 11 different teaching styles, five teacher-centred [aka reproductive/direct] and six student-centred [aka productive/indirect]’.
  • The 5 Most Effective Teaching Styles and Everything You Need to Know about them
    ‘Researchers have now been able to pinpoint some of the most effective teaching styles that you can employ in your practice ! We have prepared this comprehensive guide for all five of them. Read on to find out and master each one so you can teach more effectively’.
  • The Ultimate Guide to Teaching Styles in Higher Education
    ‘Evaluate these 11 flexible teaching styles to make your next class a place of engagement, connection and belonging’.
  • What is pedagogy ? The definition, principles and approaches [Tes]
    ‘Pedagogy is defined simply as the method, and practice, of teaching. It encompasses : Teaching styles, Teaching theory and Feedback and assessment’. Part of a series of articles on pedagogy.
  • What is Your Teaching Style ? …
    5 Effective Teaching Methods for Your Classroom. ‘Every teacher has her or his own style of teaching. And as traditional teaching styles evolve with the advent of differentiated instruction, more and more teachers are adjusting their approach depending on their students’ learning needs. But there are a few fundamental teaching styles most educators tend to use. Which one is yours ?’

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  • Cooperation vs Collaboration : When To Use Each Approach
    ‘Collaboration and cooperation are both vital for creative work. This short, sketchy video explores the difference between the two and why it matters for creative work’. [1.5min.]
  • Cooperative Learning Model : Strategies & Examples
    ‘This video begins by offering some reasons as to why cooperative learning should be used in schools by teachers for students. The video continues by describing several different ways teachers can group students for this learning environment. Groupings can be by performance level, heterogeneous, homogeneous, random, and more. Then it gives several different examples of cooperative learning’. [4.5min.]
  • Cooperative Learning - Topic
    Multiple videos on this topic running from 1 - 27 minutes. From what it is to using it in the classroom.
  • Inclusion & Special Education
    Multiple videos of varying length and specific aspects [3 - 37 minutes]. Includes videos on strategies. Not all videos included are applicable to this area.
  • Teaching Method - Topic
    Theories, methods, modelling, innovation, more. Multiple videos. Lengths range from 3.5 to 87 minutes. Some very specific aspects, some Ted Talks, some with a more general approach.
  • Teaching Methods for Inspiring the Students of the Future
    Joe Ruhl, TedX presentation. [17.75min.]
  • Teaching Styles and Strategies Overview
    ‘Ryan Banow from the Gwenna Moss Centre for Teaching Effectiveness discusses Teaching Styles and Strategies. This video has closed captions’. [10min.]
  • The 7 Keys to Creative Collaboration
    ‘In this sketch note video, we explore what makes creative collaboration work. What makes creative collaboration work effectively ? Here are seven ideas’. [2.25min.]
  • The Jigsaw Method
    ‘This cooperative learning strategy increases student engagement, encourages collaboration and results in better learning. Learn how to use the basic Jigsaw method, another variation called Jigsaw II and get tips for troubleshooting, like what to do if you can’t divide students evenly’. [6.3min.]

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