Many Learning Theories have been developed over a long period of time, though a majority of those now in use have arisen in the last century or so.
These theories apply to many different levels of educational learning.
Several theories and theorists stand out among this group, many for quite different reasons. Not all theories or theorists are covered on this page.
This page looks at major theorists and their theories. Information includes biographies, information, further sources and an increasing number of videos.
For information on Learning & Teaching Styles, related methods and further information, go to this page.
A - H
Bandura and his Social Cognitive Theory. Biography, descriptors, video, links.
- Albert Bandura
Text presentation on the man and his theories.
- Albert Bandura, Biography
Information, images. Links to concepts and topics.
- Bandura Bobo Doll Experiment
6 minute .AVI video from YouTube.
- Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory : An Introduction
YouTube Video. Links to other, related videos on the right
- Information on Self-Efficacy
Links that cover Bandura [biography, his own commentary], self-efficacy, social cognitive theory and more. Among the best sites on these topics.
‘Albert Bandura may be most well known for his work on social cognitive theory and observational learning. But it’s important for educators and parents to know about a buried treasure at the heart of social cognitive theory - self-efficacy beliefs’.
- Social Cognitive Theory
‘Posits that portions of an individual’s knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences’. Theory and looks at Bandura and others. From Wikipedia
- Social Learning Theory
Text-based presentation. Easy to read and understand. Bibliography.
- Benjamin Bloom
The man and his works.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy
13 minute video from Google. Several other Videos on Bloom’s Taxonomy are found here.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy
Learning Domains and Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Bloom’s Taxonomy [Yahoo]
Directory with annotated links.
- Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational
- The Best Resources For Helping Teachers Use Bloom’s Taxonomy In The Classroom
‘Here are my choices for The Best Resources For Helping Teachers Use Bloom’s Taxonomy In The Classroom [most, though not all, are materials prepared by different school districts]’. Larry Ferlazzo.
- Constructivism and the Five E’s
Brief rundown then goes to seven E’s.
- Constructivist Theory
Yahoo Directory, annotated links.
Constructivism, Instructivism and Related Sites. Annotated links to other sites.
De Bono, Edward
Edward De Bono and lateral & creative thinking.
- Critical Thinking and Reflection
‘The resources included on this page are designed to help you to assess and develop your critical thinking and reflection skills’.
- Critical Thinking Resources
- Edward de Bono - Biography
- How Creative and Lateral Thinking Techniques Work
- Lateral Thinking
Overview, links, references.
- Lateral Thinking and Creative Thinking Techniques
- Six Thinking Hats - Decision-Making
‘Six Thinking Hats is an important and powerful technique. It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives’. Article.
- Centre for Dewey Studies
Publications, papers, audio, reading list and more.
John Dewey on Education, Experience and
- John Dewey and the F.M. Alexander Technique
Further aspect of Dewey’s influence and interest.
- Pragmatism Archive
Dewey was considered one of the classic pragmatists.
Videos, of varying lengths, Freely available online from a number of sources. Specific videos are included with some individual topics on this page.
- Education Theory Capture Part 1
‘Educational theories explained and demonstrated. 2 Parts’. Approximately 18 minutes in all.
- Education Theory Capture Part 2
An approach rather than an individual’s theory.
- Reggio Children
‘Rechild magazine, is both a possible and a concrete instrument for readers to feel themselves a part of a large philosophical and educational community connected in network and in dialogue, a community that reflects and acts on educational issues. Bilingual Italian-English. Each issue focuses on a particular theme or topic’. PDF files available.
- Reggio Emilia : An innovative
approach to education
Article with sources. From the UK.
- Reggio Emilia
Approach to Early Years Education
‘Sets out to explain the Reggio approach and outline the inherent factors’. Several documents in PDF or Word format covering approach, Leader and Activity notes.
- Reggio Emilia Philosophy
‘The following overview of the Reggio Emilia Approach was taken from a packet of information available at The Hundred Languages of Children Travelling exhibit’. Includes a listing of features.
- Sesame Street Reggio Emilia Workshop
For parents. A series of topics are covered.
- The Reggio Emilia Approach
Links resources ‘related to the approach to early childhood education developed in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy’. Discussion lists, videos, bibliographies, newsletter and more.
Information on both the theorist and the Socioemotional Development Theory.
- Erik Erikson
Biography, theories of development, theory of personality, scientific support, bibliography, further readings, references, links to further information. From Wikipedia.
- Erik Erikson, 1902-1994
Biography, theory, stages with detailed descriptors, discussion, readings.
- Erik H. Erikson : A Life’s Work
4 minute video from YouTube Video.
- Erik Erikson, 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
YouTube Video, approx. 12 minutes.
- Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial
Links to a summary chart, introduction to the 8 stages, biography, critiques & controversies, references, other links.
- Socioemotional Development
‘For Erikson, the most important force driving human behaviour and the development of personality was social interaction’. Information about this theory, some in tabular form, the relationship to education, including preschool and primary [elementary] levels
- The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson
Extensive presentation about the 8 stages.
Created the concept of Kindergarten, its name, and had further input into the foundation of modern education.
- Elements of a Froebelian Education
Uses a heading and point format. Principles, pedagogy and environment are all covered.
- Friedrich Fröbel
Biography, career, legacy, works, references, further reading, links to further information. From Wikipedia.
- Friedrich Fröbel 
‘Best known for his work on kindergartens and play, Froebel has a lot to say for informal educators’.
- Friedrich Froebel
His life and influence on education. Article by Miriam LeBlanc.
- Friedrich Fröbel 1782-1852
- Friedrich Froebel Pdf eBooks
Access a range of these you can preview and/or download. Careful selection may be warranted.
Archive for Childhood Studies
‘Collection of books, archives, photographs, objects and multi-media materials, centring on Friedrich Froebel’s educational legacy, early years and elementary education’. Roehampton University, London.
- Froebel’s Chief Writings on Education
Online text. In chapters and sub-chapters.
- Friedrich Froebel [1782–
Biography, Froebel’s Kindergarten Philosophy, The Kindergarten Curriculum, Diffusion of the Kindergarten.
- Froebel Web
‘The leading English language online resource about Friedrich Froebel, creator of Kindergarten and designer of Froebel Gifts’.
- International Froebel Society Home
News, links to related information, conferences, more.
- Paulo Freire [Infed]
Biography, links, articles.
- Paulo Freire 
Biography, extensive bibliography [multiple languages], links to related sites.
- Paulo Freire and Informal Education
Further reading, reference, contributions, links.
- Paulo Freire’s Educational Theory
Text presentation, links, bibliography.
- Paulo Freire Institute
Biography, conferences, information on efforts to expand his influence, more.
See additional information on Multiple Intelligences on the Learning & Teaching Styles page.
- Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education
Information including questions on further intelligences.
- Howard Gardner
Biography, FAQs, books, papers, links and more.
- Howard Gardner Profile
- How Technology Enhances Howard Gardner’s Eight Intelligences
- Gestalt Psychology
Covers the educational area and goes beyond this into computers and more.
- The International Society For Gestalt Theory
And Its Applications. ‘What is Gestalt Theory ?’ to an archive of articles and information, links to people connected to the theory and its use, the Gestalt Theory Journal, Resources, Related Pages, monthly features, more.
Gregorc, Anthony F.
- Anthony F. Gregorc, Ph.D.
Visit his web site to see what he offers.
- Gregorc Learning Styles
Information on brain-hemisphere learning styles.
- Mind Styles
The Gregorc Model.
I - P
- David A. Kolb on Experiential Learning
Main topics, concerns and other thoughts.
- David Kolb
The Theory of Experiential Learning and ESL I-TESL-J.
- Experiential Learning
Articles & Critiques of David Kolb’s Theory. ‘Explores the development of experiential learning from its original proposal into some of its current refinements and applications’.
Styles and Experiential Learning
Article. University of New South Wales, 1998.
- Abraham Maslow
Background, biography, theory, discussion, references.
- A Theory of Human
Online book by Abraham Maslow, with introduction and 10 chapters. Inbuilt definitions of terms via pop-up windows.
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Representations, deficiency needs, aesthetic needs, self-transcendence, success of offspring, criticisms, references, links to other sites. From Wikipedia.
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Text-based information, diagrammatic representations, links, reference listing.
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs [Video]
A brief video. Links to more information and Word documents.
- Maslow’s Motivation Theory
And Its Application to Education. Sections on his theory and applications to education. From a US university Psychology course.
- Personality & Consciousness
Section on Abraham Maslow and His Hierarchy of Needs.
- American Montessori Consulting
‘Your one stop for complete Montessori information. Everything from A to Z. Montessori lesson plans, information, Montessori books, resources, Montessori links, Montessori discussion list and more’.
- Association Montessori Internationale
Publications, Research, training, jobs, materials, societies, pedagogy.
- Introduction to Montessori and the Montessori Foundation
‘This is a short video produced as part of the National Education Report to briefly introduce Montessori education and the work of the Montessori Foundation’. [8 mins.] Links to other videos about the Montessori method.
- Maria Montessori
Biography, background, career, methodology, references.
‘Website of the Montessori Foundation and the International Montessori Council’.
- Montessori Method
From Wikipedia. Information with embedded links, external links and more.
- The International Montessori Index
‘Schools, teachers, materials, method, teacher training, preschools’.
- The Montessori Method
‘The Philosophy & Practice of the Montessori Method of Education - for children from birth to age twelve, in the home and at school’.
- Jean Piaget
Biography, influence, major works and achievements, stage theories, quotations, references, links. From Wikipedia.
- Jean Piaget, Intellectual Development
Stages of intellectual development, how children learn, implications for education, instructional technology.
- Jean Piaget, Personality Theories
Biography plus descriptions of his theories.
- Jean Piaget Society
‘To provide an open forum, through symposia, books, our journal, and other publications, for the presentation and discussion of scholarly work on issues related to human knowledge and its development’. Biography, publications, links to Free full-text books by Piaget, links to further information [including to Vygotsky].
- Piaget’s Development Theory
Presentation, mostly in point format. Shows his theory and stages of development. Good starting point.
- TIP Theories - Genetic Epistemology
- University of Geneva Jean Piaget Archives
Information, documentation, publications and more.
Q - Z
Extensive listing of links to information on all aspects of this topic.
- Behaviourism at Questia
- B. F. Skinner
Biography, information on the theory.
- B. F. Skinner Foundation
- B.F. Skinner [Wikipedia]
Biography, theory, inventions, influence on education, awards, negative criticism, bibliography, references, more. From Wikipedia.
- Educational Theory, B F Skinner
8 points, each covering one theory.
- TIP Theories - Operant
- Charles Spearman
From Wikipedia. Information, embedded links, external links, references.
- Charles Spearman : Behavioural
‘Outline of the significant achievements of the British Psychologist, Charles Spearman, who was the originator of the classical theory of mental tests, the multivariate statistical method called factor analysis, and the first comprehensive theory of the intellect’.
- Human Intelligence - Charles Spearman
Introduction to Spearman and his theory.
Steiner and his theories, as demonstrated through implementation in Waldorf Schools.
- About Rudolf Steiner
Article, links about Steiner, new and old books, collections from lectures and other written works.
- Rudolf Steiner, An Introduction
- Rudolf Steiner Archive
Background, elibrary, discussion forums, links, blackboard artistry, bookstore, information from the American Anthroposophical Society.
- Steiner [Waldorf] Schools in Australia
- Summary of Rudolf Steiner’s Principles of
‘Review of Lecture V in Rudolf Steiner’s The Roots of Education, Five Lectures Given in 1924’.
- Waldorf Answers
‘Intending to provide answers about Waldorf education, in depth, that parents and prospective parents may have, and to clear up some of the misconceptions that may exist about Waldorf education’.
- Who Was Rudolf Steiner ?
Article, links to writings and lectures, anthologies, biographies.
- Funderstanding - Vygotsky and Social
The theory and the theorist.
- Leve Semenovich Vygotsky
‘Biographical information, descriptions of the zone of proximal development, the sociocultural approach developed by Vygotsky, and associated topics’. Links, information, texts and more.
Biography, other information.
- Lev Vygotsky Archive
Biography, image gallery, links to his works, information The Vygotsky School;, Vygotsky on literature and art, further readings.
- L.S.Vygotsky Resources
Similar pages are found at this Open Learning Wiki and on a Massey University Virtual Faculty page.
- Social Constructivism
Article covering the theory and also Vygotsky. From the University of California at Berkeley.
- Social Development Theory
Text presentation on principles and other aspects.
- The Vygotsky Reader
Leiden University. Available in part or whole in PDF format.
- TIP Theories - Social Development Theory
Article with multiple sections. There is also a link to Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development [Powerpoint presentation] and one to Vygotsky and Piaget, as well as links to other theories.
- Vygotsky’s Developmental Theory : An Introduction
‘Illustrates four basic concepts integral to his work : 1] children construct knowledge; 2] learning can lead development; 3] development cannot be separated from its social context; and 4] language plays a central role in cognitive development’.
- Vygotsky, Lev
Biography, work, influence in Eastern Europe, critics, strengths, references, bibliography, texts online, other links. From Wikipedia.
- Angles on Learning
‘Introduction to theories of learning for college, adult and professional education’. Extensive listing and descriptions, created by J S Atherton. Their Site Map lists these, in text-based groupings
- Learning Management Systems
A series of blog entries about what these are and how they are used. Try their Theory page as well.
‘This knowledge base features learning theories that address how people learn. A resource useful for scholars of various fields such as educational psychology, instructional design, and human-computer interaction’. Be sure to check the Index of Learning Theories & Models.
- Instructional Design
‘This site is designed to provide information about instructional design principles and how they relate to teaching and learning’.
- Instructional Design & Learning
University student presentation covering a fair range of learning theories.
- Learning Theories
Links to sites with research on learning.
- Learning Theories
Directory, annotated links.
- Learning Theories and Philosophies as Applied to
Grid presentation which provides information about philosophers for each area, student actions, teacher actions, subject matter emphasised and desired educational outcomes.
Learning Theories and Teaching Models
Scroll down to reach the collection of links. Each link briefly annotated.
- Learning Theory
Fundamental information about learning theories.
Learning Theory [Education]
Educational psychology, Educational neuroscience, multiple intelligences, multimedia learning, other learning theories, Philosophical anthropology, criticism of learning theory, references, further reading, links. From Wikipedia.
- Learning Theory Timeline
- Methodologies and Theories
- Newer Views of Learning Index
Leslie O Wilson. ‘This particular site strand is devoted to discussions and information on newer innovations in education. Included are : newer views of intelligence, holistic learning and teaching, brain-based education, as well as suggestions on how to create teaching environments where optimal human learning is supported and nurtured’.
A related site is his Creativity Index.
- Teaching Theories
‘There are three main categories into which learning theories fall : Behaviourist Theories, Cognitivist Theories and Constructivist Theories. In addition to these main theories, there are other theories that address how people learn. These are listed below after a list of general resources addressing all major theories for teaching and learning’.
- The Theories
Links to learning theories.